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West Nile Virus
Formalin-inactivated West Nile Virus Vaccines was observed after challenge.
Similarly, DNA-based immunization with a
Inactivated whole virus vaccines have been developed against WNV and are plasmid encoding prM and E stimulated robust humoral immune responses
currently in use in veterinary practice.
Two doses of inactivated WNV against WNV
and protected horses and outbred mice from a lethal
completely protected hamsters from lethal WNV challenge and elicited the challenge. Because recombinant protein, subviral particles, and DNA
development of neutralizing WNV-specific antibodies.
Vaccination of plasmid vaccines are not infectious, they may be safely administered to the
horses with inactivated WNV also stimulated long-lived neutralizing elderly and immunocompromised. Additionally, these vaccines may exhibit
antibody responses within 14 days of vaccination.
Although killed WNV improved specificity because they direct the immune response to a few viral
vaccines could be used to vaccinate the immunocompromised, their utility antigens. Nonetheless, multiple doses may be required to stimulate effective
may be limited by their decreased immunogenicity. Administration of humoral responses and, similar to inactivated virus preparations, it is unclear
multiple vaccine doses may be required to elicit a protective immune how durable the protective immune response will be to a non-replicating
response. Furthermore, it is unclear how durable immunity will be, as protein antigen.
relatively low levels of neutralizing antibodies were detected in hamsters
one month after initial immunization.
Given the lack of existing therapies and the continued global emergence
Subunit Vaccines, Non-Replicating Particles, and of WNV, the development of novel antiviral agents and vaccines is
DNA Vaccines essential. Based on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of severe WNV
Vaccination of animals with recombinant WNV proteins or subviral (prM–E) infection, effective antiviral agents against WNV must have minimal or no
particles also induces neutralizing antibody responses. Repeated detrimental effects on immune system function. Even with the identification
immunization of rodents with purified, recombinant WNV E protein resulted of new classes of anti-WNV agents, a major hurdle remains as to whether
in the development of neutralizing anti-WNV antibodies that were they can be administered in a timely manner before extensive and irreversible
protective against lethal WNV challenge at least one year after vaccination.
neuronal injury occurs. This will require the development and
Neutralizing antibody responses to recombinant E protein immunization in implementation of highly sensitive diagnostic tests that provide accurate
horses appeared to be more potent and durable than that observed results with a rapid turnaround time. Within the next few years, several
following vaccination with inactivated virus.
Co-expression of prM and E candidate WNV vaccines should become available. For a relatively low-
protein alone can induce the formation of flavivirus subviral non-infectious incidence disease such as WNV, some major issues that remain unresolved
particles that are immunogenic in mice.
Repeated immunization of mice include determination of the target population for vaccination and
with WNV subviral particles induced neutralizing antibody responses and identification of the vaccine that will induce protective and durable responses
protected mice against lethal WNV challenge, although a transient viremia in those at highest risk: the elderly and the immunosuppressed. ■
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