Sanofi_edit_Layout 1 22/10/2009 15:20 Page 62
Brain Trauma Stroke
1. Yusuf S, Collins R, Peto R, Why do we need some large, Strokes (PRoFESS) trial: a double-blind, active and 36. Mehta SR, Yusuf S, Peters RJ, et al., Effects of
simple randomized trials?, Stat Med, 1984;3:409–22. placebo-controlled study, Lancet Neurol, 2008;7:875–84. pre-treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin followed by
2. Rothwell PM, Treating individuals: From randomised trials to 20. Hacke W, Kaste M, Bluhmki E, et al., Thrombolysis with long-term therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous
personalised medicine, Elsevier Limited, 2007. alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke, coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE study, Lancet,
3. Rothwell PM, Treating individuals 2. Subgroup analysis in N Engl J Med, 2008;359:1317–29. 2001;358:527–33.
randomised controlled trials: importance, indications, and 21. Kennedy J, Hill MD, Ryckborst KJ, et al., Fast assessment of 37. Connolly S, Pogue J, Hart R, et al., Clopidogrel plus aspirin
interpretation, Lancet, 2005;365:176–86. stroke and transient ischaemic attack to prevent early versus oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in the
4. Sleight P, Debate: Subgroup analyses in clinical trials: fun recurrence (FASTER): a randomised controlled pilot trial, Atrial fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial with Irbesartan for
to look at – but don’t believe them!, Curr Control Trials Lancet Neurol, 2007;6:961–9. prevention of Vascular Events (ACTIVE W): a randomised
Cardiovasc Med, 2000;1:25–7. 22. Lewis JD, Schinnar R, Bilker WB, et al., Validation studies of controlled trial, Lancet, 2006;367:1903–12.
5. Second International Study of Infarct Survival (ISIS-2) the health improvement network (THIN) database for 38. Connolly SJ, Pogue J, Hart RG, et al., Effect of clopidogrel
Collaborative Group, Randomised trial of intravenous pharmacoepidemiology research, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug added to aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation, N Engl J
streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 Saf, 2007;16:393–401. Med, 2009;360:2066–78.
cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2, 23. Leys D, Woimant F, Ferrieres J, et al., Detection and 39. Goodman T, Ferro A, Sharma P, Pharmacogenetics of
Secondary Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, management of associated atherothrombotic locations in aspirin resistance: a comprehensive systematic review,
oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of patients with a recent atherothrombotic ischemic stroke: Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2008;66:222–32.
suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2, 1988;2: results of the DETECT survey, Cerebrovasc Dis, 2006;21: 40. Diener HC, Cunha L, Forbes C, et al., European Stroke
349–60. 60–66. Prevention Study. 2. Dipyridamole and acetylsalicylic acid
6. Adams HP Jr, Bendixen BH, Kappelle LJ, et al., 24. Dhamoon MS, Tai W, Boden-Albala B, et al., Risk of in the secondary prevention of stroke, J Neurol Sci,
Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. myocardial infarction or vascular death after first ischemic 1996;143:1–13.
Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. stroke: the Northern Manhattan Study, Stroke, 2007;38: 41. Antithrombotic Trialists’ Collaboration, Collaborative
Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment, Stroke, 1752–8. meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy
1993;24:35–41. 25. Hartmann A, Rundek T, Mast H, et al., Mortality and causes for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke
7. Rothwell PM, Howard SC, Spence JD, Relationship of death after first ischemic stroke: the Northern in high risk patients, Secondary Collaborative
between blood pressure and stroke risk in patients with Manhattan Stroke Study, Neurology, 2001;57:2000–2005. meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy
symptomatic carotid occlusive disease, Stroke, 2003;34: 26. Hankey GJ, Jamrozik K, Broadhurst RJ, et al., Five-year for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke
2583–90. survival after first-ever stroke and related prognostic in high risk patients, BMJ, 2002;324:71–86.
8. Rothwell PM, Goldstein LB, Carotid endarterectomy for factors in the Perth Community Stroke Study, Stroke, 42. De Schryver EL, Algra A, van Gijn J, Dipyridamole for
asymptomatic carotid stenosis: asymptomatic carotid 2000;31:2080–86. preventing stroke and other vascular events in patients
surgery trial, Stroke, 2004;35:2425–7. 27. Dennis MS, Burn JP, Sandercock PA, et al., Long-term with vascular disease, Cochrane Database Syst Rev,
9. Rothwell PM, Carotid endarterectomy and prevention of survival after first-ever stroke: the Oxfordshire Community 2007;CD001820.
stroke in the very elderly, Lancet, 2001;357:1142–3. Stroke Project, Stroke, 1993;24:796–800. 43. Clopidogrel and dipyridamole for the prevention of
10. Rothwell PM, Eliasziw M, Gutnikov SA, et al., 28. Witt BJ, Brown RD, Jr., Jacobsen SJ, et al., A atherosclerotic events, Technology Appraisal TA90, 2005;7.
Endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis in community-based study of stroke incidence after 44. Halkes PH, van Gijn J, Kappelle LJ, et al., Aspirin plus
relation to clinical subgroups and timing of surgery, Lancet, myocardial infarction, Ann Intern Med, 2005;143:785–92. dipyridamole versus aspirin alone after cerebral
2004;363:915–24. 29. Witt BJ, Ballman KV, Brown RD, Jr., et al., The incidence of ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): randomised
11. Rothwell PM, Mehta Z, Howard SC, et al., Treating stroke after myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis, Am J controlled trial, Lancet, 2006;367:1665–73.
individuals 3: from subgroups to individuals: general Med, 2006;119:354 e1–9. 45. Sacco RL, Diener HC, Yusuf S, et al., Aspirin and
principles and the example of carotid endarterectomy, 30. Weimar C, Diener HC, Alberts MJ, et al., The Essen stroke extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel for
Lancet, 2005;365:256–65. risk score predicts recurrent cardiovascular events: a recurrent stroke, N Engl J Med, 2008;359:1238–51.
12. Johnston SC, Rothwell PM, Nguyen-Huynh MN, et al., validation within the REduction of Atherothrombosis for 46. Amarenco P, Bogousslavsky J, Callahan A, 3rd, et al.,
Validation and refinement of scores to predict very early Continued Health (REACH) registry, Stroke, 2009;40: High-dose atorvastatin after stroke or transient ischemic
stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack, Lancet, 350–54. attack, N Engl J Med, 2006;355:549–59.
2007;369:283–92. 31. Ohman EM, Bhatt DL, Steg PG, et al., The REduction of 47. Bourke J, Sylvester R, Sharma P, Ethnic variations in the
13. Rothwell PM, Giles MF, Flossmann E, et al., A simple score Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry: management of patients with acute stroke, Postgrad Med J,
(ABCD) to identify individuals at high early risk of stroke an international, prospective, observational investigation 2006;82:13–15.
after transient ischaemic attack, Lancet, 2005;366:29–36. in subjects at risk for atherothrombotic events-study 48. Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, et al., Association of
14. Gage BF, van Walraven C, Pearce L, et al., Selecting design, Am Heart J, 2006;151:786 e1–10. glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular
patients with atrial fibrillation for anticoagulation: stroke 32. Steg PG, Bhatt DL, Wilson PW, et al., One-year complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective
risk stratification in patients taking aspirin, Circulation, cardiovascular event rates in outpatients with observational study, BMJ, 2000;321:405–12.
2004;110:2287–92. atherothrombosis, JAMA, 2007;297:1197–1206. 49. Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, et al., Intensive blood
15. Sacco RL, Sivenius J, Diener HC, Efficacy of aspirin plus 33. Alberts MJ, Bhatt DL, Mas JL, et al., Three-year follow-up glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with
extended-release dipyridamole in preventing recurrent and event rates in the international REduction of type 2 diabetes, N Engl J Med, 2008;358:2560–72.
stroke in high-risk populations, Arch Neurol, 2005;62:403–8. Atherothrombosis for Continued Health Registry, 50. MacMahon S, Peto R, Cutler J, et al., Blood pressure,
16. Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Ohman EM, et al., International Eur Heart J, 2009;30:2318–26. stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1, Prolonged
prevalence, recognition, and treatment of cardiovascular 34. Hart RG, Pearce LA, Aguilar MI, Meta-analysis: differences in blood pressure: prospective observational
risk factors in outpatients with atherothrombosis, JAMA, antithrombotic therapy to prevent stroke in patients who studies corrected for the regression dilution bias, Lancet,
2006;295:180–89. have nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, Ann Intern Med, 1990;335:765–74.
17. Mackay J, Mensah G (eds), The Atlas of Heart Disease and 2007;146:857–67. 51. Collins R, Peto R, MacMahon S, et al., Blood pressure,
Stroke, World Health Organization, 2004. 35. Fuster V, Ryden LE, Cannom DS, et al., ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 2, Short-term
18. Straus SE, Majumdar SR, McAlister FA, New evidence for guidelines for the management of patients with atrial reductions in blood pressure: overview of randomised
stroke prevention: scientific review, JAMA, 2002;288: fibrillation—executive summary: a report of the American drug trials in their epidemiological context, Lancet,
1388–95. College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task 1990;335:827–38.
19. Diener HC, Sacco RL, Yusuf S, et al., Effects of aspirin plus Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of 52. Mahoney EM, Wang K, Cohen DJ, One-year costs in
extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel and Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (Writing patients with a history of or at risk of atherothrombosis in
telmisartan on disability and cognitive function after Committee to Revise the 2001 Guidelines for the the United States, Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes, 2008;1:
recurrent stroke in patients with ischaemic stroke in the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation), J Am Coll 38–45.
Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Cardiol, 2006;48:854–906.
62 EUROPEAN NEUROLOGICAL REVIEW