causes substantially less impairment of different aspects of normal sexual and urinary function and resumption of normal activities, including social life and returning to work, is more rapid. In terms of long-term recurrence-free survival, BT provides efficacy that is comparable to that obtained with RP and EBRT. The 10- to 15-year biochemical control for low-risk patients treated by seed implant monotherapy is consistently between 85 and 95 % with no evidence of late failures occurring after 10 years. In addition, the 10-year disease-specific survival for patients with Gleason 6 disease treated
1. Bray F, Lortet-Tieulent J, Ferlay J, et al., Prostate cancer incidence and mortality trends in 37 European countries: an overview, Eur J Cancer, 2010;46:3040–52.
2. Gunderson K, Wang CY, Wang R, Global prostate cancer incidence and the migration, settlement, and admixture history of the Northern Europeans, Cancer Epidemiol, 2011;35:320–7.
3. Ondrusova M, Muzik J, Kliment J, et al., Prostate cancer incidence and mortality in selected countries of Central Europe, Klin Onkol, 2011;24:126–32.
4. Cancer Research UK, Prostate cancer – UK incidence statistics, 2011. Available at: http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/
cancerstats/types/prostate/incidence/ (accessed 15 September 2011).
5. Cancer Research UK, Prostate cancer – UK mortality statistics, 2010. Available at: http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/
cancerstats/types/prostate/mortality (accessed 15 September 2011).
6. Sylvester JE, Grimm PD, Blasko JC, et al., 15-Year biochemical relapse free survival in clinical Stage T1-T3 prostate cancer following combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy; Seattle experience, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2007;67:57–64.
7. Krambeck AE, DiMarco DS, Rangel LJ, et al., Radical prostatectomy for prostatic adenocarcinoma: a matched comparison of open retropubic and robot-assisted techniques, BJU Int, 2009;103:448–53.
8. Shikanov SA, Zorn KC, Zagaja GP, Shalhav AL, Trifecta outcomes after robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, Urology, 2009;74:619–23.
9. Schroeck FR, Krupski TL, Sun L, et al., Satisfaction and regret after open retropubic or robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, Eur Urol, 2008;54:785–93.
10. Guedea F, Venselaar J, Hoskin P, et al., Patterns of care for brachytherapy in Europe: updated results, Radiother Oncol, 2010;97:514–20.
11. Hoskin PJ, Bownes PJ, Ostler P, et al., High dose rate afterloading brachytherapy for prostate cancer: catheter and gland movement between fractions, Radiother Oncol, 2003;68:285–8.
12. Mazeron JJ, Brachytherapy: a new era, Radiother Oncol, 2005;74:223–5.
13. Crook J, Borg J, Evans A, et al., 10-year experience with I-125 prostate brachytherapy at the Princess Margaret Hospital: results for 1,100 patients, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2011;80:1323–9.
14. Crook J, The role of brachytherapy in the definitive management of prostate cancer, Cancer Radiother, 2011;15:230–7.
15. Carvalhal GF, Smith DS, Mager DE, et al., Digital rectal examination for detecting prostate cancer at prostate specific antigen levels of 4 ng/ml or less, J Urol, 1999;161:835–9.
16. Heidenreich A, Aus G, Bolla M, et al., EAU guidelines on prostate cancer, Eur Urol, 2008;53:68–80.
17. Heidenreich A, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, et al., [EAU Guidelines on Prostate Cancer. Part I: Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Clinically Localised Disease], Actas Urol Esp, 2011;35:501–14.
18. Heidenreich A, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, et al., EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. Part 1: screening, diagnosis, and treatment of clinically localised disease, Eur Urol, 2010;59:61–71.
19. Ragde H, Elgamal AA, Snow PB, et al., Ten-year disease free survival after transperineal sonography-guided iodine-125 brachytherapy with or without 45-gray external beam irradiation in the treatment of patients with clinically localized, low to high Gleason grade prostate carcinoma, Cancer, 1998;83:989–1001.
20. Nag S, Brachytherapy for prostate cancer: summary of American Brachytherapy Society recommendations, Semin Urol Oncol, 2000;18:133–6.
21. Nag S, Beyer D, Friedland J, et al., American Brachytherapy Society(ABS) recommendations for transperineal permanent brachytherapy of prostate cancer, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 1999;44:789–99.
22. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Dorsey AT, Lief JH, Effect of prostate size and isotope selection on dosimetric quality following permanent seed implantation, Tech Urol, 2001;7:233–40.
23. McNeely LK, Stone NN, Presser J, et al., Influence of prostate volume on dosimetry results in real-time 125I seed implantation, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2004;58:292–9.
24. Rosenthal SA, Bittner NH, Beyer DC, et al., American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) practice guideline for the transperineal
with prostate BT is up to 98 %. Treatment options for localised PCa have been shown to have similar survival outcomes and thus treatment selection is typically made based on morbidity and adverse event profiles. Future QoL is a highly important factor in this decision process. As robotic-assisted RP methods have as yet failed to improve clinical outcomes seen using open surgical techniques and have not improved the side effects, BT strongly represents a truly advantageous and minimally invasive technique with a very good safety profile for patients with localised PCa. n
permanent brachytherapy of prostate cancer, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2011;79:335–41.
25. Cosset JM, Flam T, Thiounn N, et al., Selecting patients for exclusive permanent implant prostate brachytherapy: the experience of the Paris Institut Curie/Cochin Hospital/Necker Hospital group on 809 patients, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2008;71:1042–8.
26. Moman MR, van den Berg CA, Boeken Kruger AE, et al., Focal salvage guided by T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer recurrences, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2010;76:741–6.
27. Holm HH, Juul N, Pedersen JF, et al., Transperineal 125iodine seed implantation in prostatic cancer guided by transrectal ultrasonography, J Urol, 1983;130:283–6.
28. Nag S, Ciezki JP, Cormack R, et al., Intraoperative planning and evaluation of permanent prostate brachytherapy: report of the American Brachytherapy Society, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2001;51:1422–30.
29. Kao J, Stone NN, Lavaf A, et al., (125)I monotherapy using D90 implant doses of 180 Gy or greater, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2008;70:96–101.
30. Blasko JC, Ragde H, Grimm PD, Transperineal ultrasound- guided implantation of the prostate: morbidity and complications, Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl, 1991;137:113–8.
31. Stone NN, Stock RG, Brachytherapy for prostate cancer: real-time three-dimensional interactive seed implantation, Tech Urol, 1995;1:72–80.
32. Stone NN, Marshall DT, Stone JJ, et al., Does neoadjuvant hormonal therapy improve urinary function when given to men with large prostates undergoing prostate brachytherapy?, J Urol, 2010;183:634–9.
33. Reed DR, Wallner KE, Merrick GS, et al., A prospective randomized comparison of stranded vs. loose 125I seeds for prostate brachytherapy, Brachytherapy, 2007;6:129–34.
34. Hinnen KA, Moerland MA, Battermann JJ, et al., Loose seeds versus stranded seeds in I-125 prostate brachytherapy: differences in clinical outcome, Radiother Oncol, 2010;96:30–3.
35. Wallner K, Merrick G, True L, et al., 125I versus 103Pd for low-risk prostate cancer: preliminary PSA outcomes from a prospective randomized multicenter trial, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2003;57:1297–303.
36. Kao J, Cesaretti JA, Stone NN, Stock RG, Update on prostate brachytherapy: long-term outcomes and treatment-related morbidity, Curr Urol Rep, 2011;12:237–42.
37. Nag S, Bice W, DeWyngaert K, et al., The American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for permanent prostate brachytherapy postimplant dosimetric analysis, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2000;46:221–30.
38. Amdur RJ, Gladstone D, Leopold KA, Harris RD, Prostate seed implant quality assessment using MR and CT image fusion, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 1999;43:67–72.
39. Stock RG, Stone NN, Importance of post-implant dosimetry in permanent prostate brachytherapy, Eur Urol, 2002;41:434–9.
40. Willins J, Wallner K, CT-based dosimetry for transperineal I-125 prostate brachytherapy, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 1997;39:347–53.
41. Shanahan TG, Nanavati PJ, Mueller PW, et al., A comparison of permanent prostate brachytherapy techniques: preplan vs. hybrid interactive planning with postimplant analysis, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2002;53:490–6.
42. Zelefsky MJ, Yamada Y, Cohen G, et al., Postimplantation dosimetric analysis of permanent transperineal prostate implantation: improved dose distributions with an intraoperative computer-optimized conformal planning technique, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2000;48:601–8.
43. Zelefsky MJ, Yamada Y, Marion C, et al., Improved conformality and decreased toxicity with intraoperative computer-optimized transperineal ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2003;55:956–63.
44. Matzkin H, Kaver I, Stenger A, et al., Iodine-125 brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer and urinary morbidity: a prospective comparison of two seed implant methods-preplanning and intraoperative planning, Urology, 2003;62:497–502.
45. Stokes SH, Real JD, Adams PW, et al., Transperineal ultrasound-guided radioactive seed implantation for organ-confined carcinoma of the prostate, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 1997;37:337–41.
46. Zelefsky MJ, Kuban DA, Levy LB, et al., Multi-institutional analysis of long-term outcome for stages T1-T2 prostate cancer treated with permanent seed implantation, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2007;67:327–33.
47. Critz FA, Levinson AK, Williams WH, Holladay DA, Prostate-specific antigen nadir: the optimum level after irradiation for prostate cancer, J Clin Oncol, 1996;14:2893–2900.
48. Smathers S, Wallner K, Sprouse J, True L, Temporary PSA rises and repeat prostate biopsies after brachytherapy, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2001;50:1207–11.
49. Critz FA, Williams WH, Benton JB, et al., Prostate specific antigen bounce after radioactive seed implantation followed by external beam radiation for prostate cancer, J Urol, 2000;163:1085–9.
50. Wallner K, Blasko J, Dattoli MJ, Evaluating cancer status. In: Wallner K, Blasko J, Dattoli MJ (eds), Prostate brachytherapy made complicated, Seattle: SmartMedicine Press, 1997;14:1–5.
51. Caloglu M, Ciezki JP, Reddy CA, et al., PSA bounce and biochemical failure after brachytherapy for prostate cancer: a study of 820 patients with a minimum of 3 years of follow-up, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2011;80:735–41.
52. Stock RG, Cesaretti JA, Stone NN, Disease-specific survival following the brachytherapy management of prostate cancer, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2006;64:810–6.
53. Critz FA, Levinson K, 10-year disease-free survival rates after simultaneous irradiation for prostate cancer with a focus on calculation methodology, J Urol, 2004;172:2232–8.
54. Critz FA, Williams WH, Levinson AK, et al., Simultaneous irradiation for prostate cancer: intermediate results with modern techniques, J Urol, 2000;164:738–41; discussion 741–3.
55. Taira AV, Merrick GS, Butler WM, et al., Long-term outcome for clinically localized prostate cancer treated with permanent interstitial brachytherapy, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2011;79:1336–42.
56. Stone NN, Stone MM, Rosenstein BS, et al., Influence of pretreatment and treatment factors on intermediate to long-term outcome after prostate brachytherapy, J Urol, 2011;185:495–500.
57. Hinnen KA, Battermann JJ, van Roermund JG, et al., Long- term biochemical and survival outcome of 921 patients treated with I-125 permanent prostate brachytherapy, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2010;76:1433–8.
58. Khaksar SJ, Laing RW, Henderson A, et al., Biochemical (prostate-specific antigen) relapse-free survival and toxicity after 125I low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy, BJU Int, 2006;98:1210–5.
59. Potters L, Morgenstern C, Calugaru E, et al., 12-year outcomes following permanent prostate brachytherapy in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer, J Urol, 2005;173:1562–6.
60. Stock RG, Stone NN, Tabert A, et al., A dose-response study for I-125 prostate implants, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 1998;41:101–8.
61. Stone NN, Stock RG, 8-year treatment results of prostate brachytherapy, J Urol, 2002;167:1560.
62. Grimm PD, Blasko JC, Sylvester JE, et al., 10-year biochemical (prostate-specific antigen) control of prostate cancer with (125)I brachytherapy, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2001;51:31–40.
63. D'Amico AV, Whittington R, Malkowicz SB, et al., Biochemical outcome after radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy, or interstitial radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer, JAMA, 1998;280:969–74.
64. Polascik TJ, Pound CR, DeWeese TL, Walsh PC, Comparison of radical prostatectomy and iodine 125 interstitial radiotherapy for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer: a 7-year biochemical (PSA) progression analysis, Urology, 1998;51:884–9; discussion 889–90.
65. Ramos CG, Carvalhal GF, Smith DS, et al., Retrospective comparison of radical retropubic prostatectomy and 125iodine brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer, J Urol, 1999;161:1212–5.
66. Nag S, Ellis RJ, Merrick GS, et al., American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for reporting morbidity after prostate brachytherapy, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2002;54:462–70.
67. Lee WR, McQuellon RP, Harris-Henderson K, et al., A preliminary analysis of health-related quality of life in the first year after permanent source interstitial brachytherapy (PIB) for clinically localized prostate cancer, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2000;46:77–81.
68. Lee WR, Hall MC, McQuellon RP, et al., A prospective quality-of-life study in men with clinically localized prostate carcinoma treated with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, or interstitial brachytherapy,
EUROPEAN UROLOGICAL REVIEW
| Page 2
| Page 3
| Page 4
| Page 5
| Page 6
| Page 7
| Page 8
| Page 9
| Page 10
| Page 11
| Page 12
| Page 13
| Page 14
| Page 15
| Page 16
| Page 17
| Page 18
| Page 19
| Page 20
| Page 21
| Page 22
| Page 23
| Page 24
| Page 25
| Page 26
| Page 27
| Page 28
| Page 29
| Page 30
| Page 31
| Page 32
| Page 33
| Page 34
| Page 35
| Page 36
| Page 37
| Page 38
| Page 39
| Page 40
| Page 41
| Page 42
| Page 43
| Page 44
| Page 45
| Page 46
| Page 47
| Page 48
| Page 49
| Page 50
| Page 51
| Page 52
| Page 53
| Page 54
| Page 55
| Page 56
| Page 57
| Page 58
| Page 59
| Page 60
| Page 61
| Page 62
| Page 63
| Page 64
| Page 65
| Page 66
| Page 67
| Page 68
| Page 69
| Page 70
| Page 71
| Page 72
| Page 73
| Page 74
| Page 75
| Page 76