Posterior Segment Age-related Macular Degeneration
between ARM risk and hypermetropia was found in the Blue Mountains eye study (OR 2.0)261
hyperopia compared with emmetropia).262 or HR given).35,125
and the Rotterdam study (OR 1.20 for advanced In a further Blue Mountains
eye study no association was found between hypermetropia and the five-year incidence of ARM.263
2.31) were associated with hypermetropia in the AREDS study.128
studies have reported no effect of hypermetropia on risk for developing ARMD.124,264
Large drusen (OR 1.28) and CNV (OR Other
A biological mechanism for increased risk of ARMD with hypermetropia has not yet been elucidated. One study suggests shorter, thicker eyes with increased scleral rigidity decreases choroidal blood flow and thus retinal nutrient and waste exchange, leading to increased oxidative stress.262
Other, less reported non-modifiable risk factors inconsistently associated with ARMD include hand-grip strength, optic disc appearance and birth weight. A couple of studies have linked decreased hand grip strength to increased risk for AMD (no OR, RR
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