including diabetes, hypertension, and/or congestive heart failure, an excess of MR activation has been shown to have a negative impact on endothelial function, hence disrupting the physiological balance between vasoconstriction and vasodilatation.70
Such a mechanism may play a role in
the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction, especially in the aging male, whereas increased cardiovascular risk, hypertension, and diabetes represent precipitating factors contributing to impaired vascular relaxation due to overactivation of the ET-1/endothelin receptor-A (ETA) pathway.71 ETA receptor blockade as well as mineralocorticoid receptor blockade may represent alternative therapeutic approaches for erectile dysfunction associated with salt-sensitive hypertension and in pathological conditions where increased levels of ET-1 are present.
The endothelium plays a critical role in the physiological function of all vascular beds, maintaining vascular homoeostasis and thus preventing initiation or progression of vascular disease. Any insult or injury to the endothelium may produce pathological states and dysfunction. Synthesis and release of vasodilators from the endothelium, such as NO,
prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, is integral to the maintenance of physiological function. Endothelial damage due to various insults determines the production of potent
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